According to one study, in infants with <1500-g birth weight, the incidence of grade 3 to 4 IVH is 10% to 12%. Infants born prematurely are at increased risk for neural complications. The following are some common neural complications seen in neonates:
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): IVH is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. Prematurity (and the degree of prematurity) is a risk factor for this condition. There are four grades of IVH. Grades 1-4 indicate severity of the bleed. Learn more at NIH.
Hydrocephalus: Hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess fluid accumulates in the brain. This causes widening of the ventricles and can put pressure on the brain. A common treatment for hydrocephalus is surgically placing a shunt system in the brain to rid the brain of excess fluid. Learn more at NIH.
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL): PVL is a disorder in which there is a death of white brain matter caused by lack of oxygen or blood to the periventricular portion of the brain. There is no treatment to cure this condition. There are only treatments to alleviate symptoms. Learn more at NIH.